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Vol. 4 No. 1 (2022): Volume 4, Issue 1, Year 2022

Tolkappiyam’s courtship and exogamy

Thirupathi D
Department of Tamil, Central University of Tamil Nadu, Thiruvarur, 610005, Tamil Nadu, India.
Velmurugan P
Department of Tamil, Central University of Tamil Nadu, Thiruvarur, 610005, Tamil Nadu, India.

Published 2021-11-17


  • Promiscuous Intercourse,
  • Clan,
  • Endogamy,
  • Exogamy,
  • Tolkappiyam,
  • Courtship,
  • Marxism,
  • Friedrich Engels,
  • Ambedhkar
  • ...More

How to Cite

D, T., & P, V. (2021). Tolkappiyam’s courtship and exogamy. International Research Journal of Tamil, 4(1), 1-10.

Plum Analytics


The human race has gone through various transformations. It also presented impediments to sexual activity. People lived in groups and had their sexual relations inside them throughout the prehistoric period. Simultaneously, there was promiscuous intercourse. The clan was then created as a result of many external developments in society that resulted in the restriction of promiscuous relations. Because the father's identity is unknown, the descent was calculated using the mother's line. Endogamy was forbidden in clans, while exogamy was tolerated. Exogamy was unavoidable over time, and it is also the reason for the Clan's existence. Exogamy was practiced in many countries without protest, whereas endogamy was permitted in India but exogamy was condemned. It's important to figure out why this disagreement exists. First and foremost, we must investigate the following question: ‘In India, which sexual form, endogamy or exogamy, was allowed among the clan?' We can investigate it with the aid of ancient literature. Tolkappiyam, one of the earliest literary masterpieces of the Tamil race in current Indian civilization, is preserved in this fashion. In Tolkappiyam, there were two sexual forms: 'kalavu' and 'karpu.' This paper investigates the concept that the 'kalavu' referenced in Tolkappiyam may represent exogamy from the Marxist perspective through ‘Tolkappiya Poruladhigaram.


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