https://irjt.iorpress.org/index.php/irjt/issue/feed International Research Journal of Tamil 2021-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 முனைவர் ர. சுரேஷ் editor@irjt.iorpress.org Open Journal Systems International Research Journal of Tamil its a Quarterly open access journal At this moment, there is a need for quality international research in Tamil to promote Tamil research, We have arranged for the free publication of quality articles to be accepted in our Journal. https://irjt.iorpress.org/index.php/irjt/article/view/363 Avvai- An Epistemic Advantage 2021-06-08T15:01:09+00:00 Ugin Rositta M rosittaugin@gmail.com <p>Tamil world always owe its tribute to Avvai for her scholarly contribution. Desire to do virtue is an iconic statement of this great personality who perceived to be an epistemic advantage. The purpose of this article is to examine her work as a children literary creator and to explore her cognitive success in terms of Educational Philosophy. Her literary contribution plays a major role in identifying the Tamil community as an epistemic community. The pattern of knowledge construction employed by Avvai enhances the individual to explore knowledge, to discover the ultimate truth and establishing virtue. This article is known for its analysis of the literary work and social dialogues chose to add Avvai’s commitment to establishing that education is a way to subdue the senses and achieve reality. This piece of research ignites a spark to future researcher to view Avvai as a social scientist rather than a Tamil scholar with reference to the normative principles established in her work.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ugin Rositta M https://irjt.iorpress.org/index.php/irjt/article/view/448 A Research on Frequently used Products from Sangam Literature 2021-08-16T05:31:58+00:00 Nallamuthu R nallamuthu.1977@gmail.com <p>As to impoverished men this present world is not:&nbsp; The ‘graceless’ in you world have neither part nor lot. As the famous poet vazhuvar puts across this thought, we are surrounded and dependenton material possessions in this world. These asserts play a vital role in every stage and every event of our life. The relationship between oneself and the goods is too deep and enigmatic. In no way we withdraw ourselves from these domestic equipments. The materials connected to our everyday life can be tagged domestic products. These asserts help us in understanding and sangam period. On this note, the domestic products and its varieties are widely discussed. The research focuses on differentating these products namely: Domestic things, pottery, jewelleries made of gold, utensils made of stone, iron and bamboo made appliances.</p> 2021-08-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nallamuthu R https://irjt.iorpress.org/index.php/irjt/article/view/461 A comparative approach to the Morality of Purananuru and Shi Jing 2021-08-26T10:35:26+00:00 Kalathi V kalathitamizh@gmail.com Suresh R suresh@gmail.com <p>This article compares the data on 'Aram' found in two classics, Purananuru in Tamil and Shi Jing (诗经) in China. In both the collections, it is learnt that the messages of morality are the nucleus. By comparison, we can see how savants are considered to be prominent in society, how their unbiased ideas have been presented to the states of that time and how they have been developed into ethical values. Thus, it is possible to see from comparison that literature originating in two different lands has some similarities and some differences in ethical ideas.</p> 2021-08-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Kalathi V, Suresh R https://irjt.iorpress.org/index.php/irjt/article/view/464 Virali and Artistic Background Change 2021-08-31T05:05:58+00:00 Poongodi A poongodisa@gmail.com <p>Humans carried the ideas that came to their minds to the people through the arts. Artists are those who have the power to express the arts to others through their culture. The role of such artists in the Sangam era was of great importance. Ninga had a place in the kingdom and in the battlefields. In Sangam songs, the words for the artist were Panar, Porunar, Kuiluvar, Vayiriyar, Viraliyar, Kuttar, Kannular and Patiniyar. Although all of these are generic, there is a subtle difference between the names in terms of musical instruments' playing, dancing, and singing skills. Of these, Viraliyar is a feminist and singer. Virali is a performer who leads a nomadic life. Virali, who excelled in receiving gifts, exemplified the success of kings through their arts. The literature shows that they received valuables gifts like mountain, country, gold, jewelers when they sang songs in praise of the kings. In perumpanatrupadaiviralis beauty was lauded from head to toe. The detailed description is present inkesathipatha. From these descriptions we can get to understand their significance. Such a beautiful and elegantviralis transferred intoparaththiyarover a period of time.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Poongodi A https://irjt.iorpress.org/index.php/irjt/article/view/206 Patanjali Yoga Sutra and Thirumoolar Thirumandiram a comparative study 2021-06-28T14:15:37+00:00 Venkatesan R venstar2001@gmail.com Ilavarasu Judu judu@svyasa.edu.in <p>India is the symbol of spirituality. Yoga is the method of attaining spiritual awareness. Yoga is spreading all over the world in this twentieth century. The ‘Yoga Sutra’ divised by the sage Patanjali who is known as the father of yoga, is seen by most people as the source of the art of yoga. When comparing the Patanjali Yoga Sutra with the Thirumoolar Thirumandiram, both the texts explain Astanga Yoga, Astama Siddhis, Four Padas, Pranava Samadhi and Mukthi. The Yoga Sutra speaks of ten types of samadhi states. Thirumandiram elaborates on thirty types of states of consciousness. Apart from Astanga Yoga, special techniques like Pariyanga Yoga, Chandra Yoga and Kayasiddhi Upayam are also mentioned in the Thirumandiram. Yoga Sutra is a book of 196 songs. Thirumandiram is a very comprehensive book with 3000 songs.</p> 2021-09-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Venkatesan R, Ilavarasu Judu https://irjt.iorpress.org/index.php/irjt/article/view/331 The work and life of Namakkal Kavignar Ramalingam through my story book 2021-07-06T05:32:48+00:00 Devi M desavi56@gmail.com Balasubramaniyan S drbharathibalan@gmail.com <p>Various types of literature in Tamil have appeared and developed over time. Literature refines our lives. The literature that appeared in each period is able to reveal the living environment of the people of the respective period. Sangam Literature, Sangam Forgotten Literature, Devotional Literature, Folk Literature, Short Story, Novel, Renewal Poetry, Drama, Prose Literature. In this order his historical literature appears and develops. Her history is a collection of events that took place in a person's life. Traces of his historical literature can be found in the Sangam literature. When he and his friend Kopperuncholan, who was dying in the north, went to die in the north, many witnesses there asked why he had not lost his hair for so long. He has the best character wife in life, and people. He says that the Evelars who do not say what he thinks, and that the king is a good protector. And in our town live many learned, virtuous, well-meaning people with goals and principles. So I don't care. So he says I don't have gray hair. Through this, the news about Pichirantaiyar, his hometown, the witnesses in Avur, the people, the king and the evildoer are revealed. And he records through his songs that he lived a quiet contented life without any problems or interruptions. The above biographical notes are able to know the capital of his historical literature. Autobiography is written by a wide variety of writers, political leaders, scholars, and writers from all walks of life. One of the most significant of these biographies is considered to be that of the poet Ramalingam Pillai. The poet Ramalingam of this book is not only talking about the child's own life. Rather it speaks to the community as well. Because the poet Ramalingam Pillai has expressed in his works that he loved this community and what he experienced in his life. In particular, many of the events under the headings of Prayer, Thirukkural Pride, Gandhi, Nattukkummi, Feminism, Bharathidarshanam can be traced back to his works.</p> 2021-09-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Devi M, Balasubramaniyan S https://irjt.iorpress.org/index.php/irjt/article/view/476 Proverbs Four Hundred emphasizing ethics 2021-09-11T11:25:20+00:00 Chandrakumari S chandrakumaris2015@gmail.com <p>Proverbs Four Hundred Emphasizing Ethics is the topic of the study. Proverb four hundred says that old sins will go away by doing dharmas. It means doing good deeds in a timely manner. It says that one should not insult a friend among intellectuals, and that such insulting is like insulting ourselves. Wealth that is kept safe should not be put together as big money to help behind. It says that we should give the wealth we have accumulated to others and if we live like that, it will be the great treasure that we will accumulate in the end times. The deeds he has done will benefit one. Surrounding people will not give such an advantage. It is okay to not be able to do beneficial charity for many days. Says do some day. Doing virtue also brings benefits. The proverb says that you will get Motsam as well. Let us attain the Moksha life by doing the proverbial four hundred emphasizing virtue.</p> 2021-09-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Chandrakumari S https://irjt.iorpress.org/index.php/irjt/article/view/477 Womens in Ephigraphs of Gongu Nadu 2021-09-11T11:39:04+00:00 Mahadevi N mahadevin@vetias.ac.in <p>Ephigraphs of Kongu Nadu has the Evidence of Women’s Contribution both from Royal Family and poverty-stricken family. Though the disparate regions of Kongu Nadu was ruled by various kings, the evidence of women’s contribution is found only in the Ephigraphs of Pandyas, Cheras, and Cholas. However, women Contribution was at peak during Chozha Period. Women of Royal Clan was provisioned with the ability and rights to maintain and rejuvenate Temples. Devaradiyarkal contributed Gold and coins which stands as a testimony to their social standard. It also reflects their Wealth. The wives of Government officials offered lands as part of their contribution. The evidence of contributions made by lay women could be traced only in the Epigraphs of 12th or 13th Century only. It is believed that women made their contribution with regard to God but the trace of evidence couldn’t be found anywhere. Further, the glimpses on women’s right to property and in addition, their freedom to use their property regardless of any exterior interventions were also been recorded.</p> 2021-09-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Mahadevi N https://irjt.iorpress.org/index.php/irjt/article/view/237 Raising children in the Seevaga Sinthamani epic 2021-02-03T12:23:41+00:00 Narmatha T narmathathiru87@gmail.com Devanan R ramadevanan@periyaruniversity.ac.in <p>Man cannot live alone. You can only live dependent on relationships. Relationships play a major role in determining a person's development. Every relationship is subject to structure. With protocol. It can be divided into two types. One is family relationships. The other is social relations. In family relationships parents can have relationships like children, siblings, boyfriend girlfriend, husband wife. Social relationships include friends, teachers, students, acquaintances, and strangers. In this, selfless relationships are enduring. This can be seen in the community and family. The Kattunde family runs smoothly through the bond of love. Otherwise, the family would not be where it is today. Childbearing is considered important in family relationships. People considered a life without children to be a useless day. Children born into the world are recognized by their parents. Parents also act as if they have a duty to grow as a responsible person in the community. That is why it is so sweet. Compensation is unparalleled than other relationships. Inseparable. Bound in love. Participating in pleasures and pains. Many generations have passed. The parent-child relationship functions with such a variety of features. Various literatures record this. However, this article only explains the status of parent-child development in the parent-child relationship in the Sivagasindamani epic.</p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Narmatha T, Devanan R https://irjt.iorpress.org/index.php/irjt/article/view/481 Text Creation in Novel Narrative 2021-09-13T04:07:30+00:00 Sudalaimani P sudalaimani77@gmail.com <p>Exposition (SASATSGS) is a knowledge-based field used to explain the various elements and functions of story description. Morphology is the basis of exposition.&nbsp; The basis of exposition is the subtle units invisible to the language. The expositioners have developed some basic definitions for the creation of panual. The narrative or the story can be constructed by combining the events with the narrative. Through this, the narrator easily reaches the reader.&nbsp; Story programs can be integrated into time and causality. Novelists often rely on programs to build stories. Some people set up story shows in a linear manner in chronological order.&nbsp; Modern novelists have set up programs through causal communication. In this manner, the programmes have been dissolved. The reader with reading experience learns the causal connection and understands the story. Sundara Ramasamy, Jayamohan and Shobashakti have successfully set up the programmes of the story in a time-based series. The reader who reads their novels easily identifies the operating system of the story. In Nakulan's novel Dogs, a causal sequence has been adopted to coordinate the programmes. The reader who reads this could not immediately understand the flow of the story.&nbsp; They are a slightly difficult series.&nbsp; Charu Nivedita's novel 'Dekam' and MG Suresh's 'Spider' are in a causal sequence. Sundara Ramasamy and Shobashakti are seen in their novels in the same programme. Novels are divided into small elements based on the definition review and innovative results are available.</p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Sudalaimani P https://irjt.iorpress.org/index.php/irjt/article/view/482 The Advent of the Europeans and the History of the Development of Tamil Grammar Texts 2021-09-13T04:10:23+00:00 Jaiganesh B ilamarantamil@gmail.com <p>Grammatical and linguistic history, like Tamil literary history, has its own antiquity and continuity. Grammatical writings have kept on showing up as the literary writing has increased and changed. Grammatical texts based on the knowledge of literature, the knowledge of the language, or the critical objectives of the language, the literature that appears in that language, later become more closely identified with social history. Numerous grammatical works have appeared in Tamil but many of them do not exist. However, many of the available texts are qualified enough to speak of the grammatical richness of Tamil. With the grammatical richness of a language, it is possible to estimate how ancient the literary richness of that language and the origin of the speakers of that language are. Thus, the numerous grammars available in Tamil serve as evidence for measuring the antiquity of the Tamil language. The origin of grammatical texts is not a linear one, but one that is continually developing to suit the occasions, the blend of dialects, and the progressions in the writing. This change sets the stage for the development of language. Thus, Tamil grammar texts have undergone a series of changes. This article sets out to evaluate the background to the development of nineteenth-century grammar textbooks following the arrival of Europeans, who occupy a significant place in this change.</p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Jaiganesh B https://irjt.iorpress.org/index.php/irjt/article/view/484 Small Deity Worship in Sri Lanka: A Comparative Study Based on Hindu and Buddhist Religious Traditions 2021-09-15T05:17:29+00:00 Gunapalasingam V gunapalasingamv@esn.ac.lk <p>The People who have not only multi ethnic, multi -religious and multi -languages in Sri Lanka but also, they follow different beliefs and cultural traditions as well. Hindu and Buddhist religious and cultural traditions are very prominent in Sri Lanka. Even though India is the root cause for the prevailing Hindu and Buddhist traditions in Sri Lanka, both the traditions and its worships and beliefs have unique and independent characteristics different from India. Small deity worship comprises of unique and independent characteristics in Sri Lanka. Small Deity worship in Hindu tradition: Kazhippu ritual, temple ritual, Kumara Deiva worship, Vairava worship, Pathini Amman worship, tree worship, Naga thampiran worship and small deity worship in Buddhist tradition: Thovil, Magapirith, katharagama deio, Bahirava, Pathini Deio, Bothi tree, Maga Naga are compared and identified unique and innovative characteristics among them. In this research, historical method, comparative method and descriptive method have been used. Data gathered from field work are considered as primary sources and data gathered from literature, research articles, manuscripts, etc. considered as secondary sources. Knowing origin and background of Hindu and Buddhist religion, identifying characteristics of small deity worship in Hindu and Buddhist tradition in Sri Lanka, discovering unique and innovative characteristics of small deity worship of Hindu and Buddhist traditions and evaluating values revealed by the two traditions are objectives of the research. Research area for this study is Magoya Divisional Secretary and Eravur Pattu Divisional Secretary. The conclusion of the research is that the small deity worships of the above two traditions fulfills psychological needs of the concerned people and small deity worship beliefs and traditions of Hindu and Buddhist religions will continue for long time.</p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Gunapalasingam V https://irjt.iorpress.org/index.php/irjt/article/view/485 Feeling of love in Batticaloa folk songs 2021-09-15T06:07:16+00:00 Murugu Thayanithy muruguthayanithy@gmail.com <p>Literatures have been studied orally before taking written form. History makes it clear that such songs were written during the Sanskrit period. These oral literatures shed light on the life and history of a country and its flaws and serve as a mirror that reveals the cultures, customs, and ancient thoughts of the people. Although the study of folk songs on the world stage has been in vogue for a long time, it came into practice in Tamil Nadu in the 19<sup>th</sup> century and then came into the study. However, it has not been advanced as a separate discipline in the University of Sri Lanka to date. Instead, the study of folk songs is being carried out in collaboration with the Tamil Department.In the case of Batticaloa Tamil Nadu, the close connection between India and Sri Lanka due to migration, migration and migration from ancient times can be seen from the identification of Tamils as the first and last king of Sri Lanka.Therefore, it is possible to realize that folk songs are widespread among the people of Batticaloa as there was not only Tamil Nadu connection but also Indian national connection. The songs are arranged in the form of Ritual, Rain and Famine, Lullaby, Game, love, Marriage, Family, Community, Relationship and Career, Obpari, Swing, Satire, Mother Songs.These songs explore love songs, present the feeling of love found in them, show how they fit in with the general characteristics found in the literature of Sangala Agathi and reveal aspects of the Batticaloa socio-cultural hierarchy. The gist of the song is not to give a direct meaning, but to explain its essence. They are classified as motherly songs, Fatherly songs, Leader songs, Leader songs, Friend songs, and General songs.</p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Murugu Thayanithy https://irjt.iorpress.org/index.php/irjt/article/view/474 Critically analysis of Shobasakthi Box Story Book 2021-09-11T07:07:36+00:00 Selvakumaran S ss11399@annamalaiuniversity.ac.in Prapha Joselin C prabhajoslin1975@gmail.com <p>Shobashakti is one of the most important migrant creators of today's Eelam. He has created novels including Gorilla, M and BOX. This paper deals with BOX. The new day brings to the fore the geological and social and historical references to the village of Palankulam, the central domain of the story, and the various war-related situations of Eelam. This study reveals them critically. Moreover, the story is told under a separate title from Mayyakakatha to Forty in the novel. In addition, the final version of the story has been set up. Under some headings subsection symmesis sub-copies 1 and 2 are also included. The subsection of the subcopies is centered on the statement of the characters and the textual record of the heart queen and the text language record of Roman Bhaktadas are the new techniques and methods in the new system. They are also discussed in the article.</p> 2021-09-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Selvakumaran S, Prabha Joslin K