International Research Journal of Tamil https://irjt.iorpress.org/index.php/irjt International Research Journal of Tamil its a Quarterly open access journal At this moment, there is a need for quality international research in Tamil to promote Tamil research, We have arranged for the free publication of quality articles to be accepted in our Journal. IOR PRESS en-US International Research Journal of Tamil 2582-1113 Environmental Awareness on Air in Eight Anthologies https://irjt.iorpress.org/index.php/irjt/article/view/67 <p>The Sangam literature is proof that the Tamil poets were aware of the nature of the wind. The sweetness and tenderness of the breeze may impress the hearts of the witnesses. The Tamils ??marked the wind from every direction with each name. It is seen that the wind and summer are blowing fast and the former is a blizzard and the latter is very hot. All the charm of the tenderness is the breeze, the energy and the swiftness of the blow. The winds are explained by the sound of the wind or the whistling of the tree's leaves. Because the anthropogenic man recognized the importance of the air and maintained the airspace clean, there were no significant impacts on humans and other organisms. But, humans, animals, and plants today suffer from many conditions. We, as human beings, recognize the importance of the air, and we have to protect the atmosphere from pollution, especially in situations where man is unable to breathe.</p> Regina B Copyright (c) 2020 Author 2020-05-04 2020-05-04 2 3 1 14 10.34256/irjt2031 Nature Centered Belief of Konguvelalars https://irjt.iorpress.org/index.php/irjt/article/view/32 <p>Belief plays a significant role in human life. It forms the basis for various activities of human life. People living in a particular cultural environment are found to have shared beliefs with certain beliefs that are specific to a group alone. These specific beliefs are created because of Ethnicity, Environment, Occupation and Life style of the group. Konguvelalars have unique beliefs centered around nature because of their close relationship with nature, trees, plants, animals and birds, which are different from the beliefs held by the other people who are living in the same region. This assumption forms the basis of this research. It is essential to identify the reasons behind these unique beliefs because they can be lost over a period. Uthagarai in Krishnagiri district is chosen as the study area for this research to identify the reasons behind these unique beliefs.</p> Jothimani T Sundaramoorthi M Copyright (c) 2020 Jothimani T, Sundaramoorthi M 2020-05-07 2020-05-07 2 3 15 27 10.34256/irjt2032 Lifestyle of Ancient Maruthaa People https://irjt.iorpress.org/index.php/irjt/article/view/27 <p>The life of the ancient Tamil people belonging to various community groups is based upon five different land forms. Their life is based on the Mountains, later they created new forest land and developed that forest in to Paalai and Neydhal field in their respective highs and lows. The people those lived in Paalai and Neydhal were the leaders of that particular land. Similarly, Uzhavan and Uzathiyar were the leaders of the Marutham land. The ancient literature also depicts that there were other people belonging to Kalamar, Thozhuvar, Mallar, Kambalar, Vinaingar, Uzhavar, Kadaingar, Kilainger, Sidhalar and Mezhiyar lived in the Marutham land. This article mainly focuses on the lifestyle, cultural movements and occupations of the ancient people and also tries to find out if there is any discrimination based on the casteism among the ancient population.</p> Sankar R Copyright (c) 2020 Sankar R 2020-05-07 2020-05-07 2 3 28 38 10.34256/irjt2033 Tamil Literary dictionaries - the need and uses of Encyclopedia https://irjt.iorpress.org/index.php/irjt/article/view/68 <p>Though Tamil is recognised as the world’s oldest language, its a matter of great concern that there aren’t persistent efforts to create and maintain Tamil language dictionaries. While there have been many instances right from the sangam era in creating dictionaries and encyclopedia, they haven’t been continually updated to refine, remove errors or to add in the developments to the language by way of new words introduced. With English being used as the main language across the board, it’s important to have well maintained dictionaries and encyclopedia without which there will be no growth of the language. This paper traces the history of Tamil language dictionaries, about the pioneers and their attempts to bring out encyclopedia in various fields and emphasises the need to create a comprehensive dictionary and encyclopedia, update it yearly and the need to make it a mandatory subject of study in schools.</p> Arunan C Copyright (c) 2020 Arunan C 2020-05-08 2020-05-08 2 3 39 51 10.34256/irjt2034 Dhandapani Swami’s Aruvagai Ilakkanam – Edition History https://irjt.iorpress.org/index.php/irjt/article/view/71 <p>More detailed studies of the history of the Tamil text editions are being carried out with the help of micro data. Thus, edition history is no longer a personal history. Because the history of the edition is not without consideration of the dynamics of the social movement as a whole of the European priests, monasteries, institutions and individuals who operated in the sphere of history. Thus article discusses the edition history of the text called Aruvagai Ilakkanam.</p> Kalaivani S Copyright (c) 2020 Kalaivani S 2020-05-14 2020-05-14 2 3 52 59 10.34256/irjt2035 Literary Personality evident in Kalaignar M.Karunanidhi’s Text bibliography https://irjt.iorpress.org/index.php/irjt/article/view/51 <p>Kalaignar M. Karunanidhi stands high of all literary stalwarts of his age through his contribution to the language, literature and the state as a writer and a leader. He had been meticulously writing for decades together producing wide range of works that include political statements, pamphlets, editorial columns, poems, plays, stories, and translations of classics, screenplay and dialogues for films, Television serials and so on. His area of expertise includes ancient Tamil literature on which he has written kuraloviyam, sangaTamizh, Tholkapiyapoonga and ThirukuralThelivurai. He registers his vision for Tamil language and people in his works. He records his pride in rich Tamil tradition and at the same time he employs satire to comment about the grey areas. This paper studies the works of Dr. Kalaignar and presents the social history of the Tamils depicted in it through various literary devices.</p> Sridevi P Copyright (c) 2020 Sridevi B 2020-05-16 2020-05-16 2 3 60 69 10.34256/irjt2036 Love Emotions as depicted by Tholkappiyar in Gunamalayaar Elambagam https://irjt.iorpress.org/index.php/irjt/article/view/72 <p>Tholkappiyam has not only framed rules for letters and words in world language, but it has also assigned certain regulations for life. Tholkappiyar’s views on love emotions can be found in Civaka Cintamani Gunamalayaar Elambagam. Gunamalayaar Elambagam express the Gunamalay’s love for her lover, her thoughts, feelings, her love sickness, her mental and physical condition and her thought to give up her life if she is unable to meet her lover again. Gunamalay’s love emotions and feelings match rightly with Tholkappiyar.</p> Ponni B Copyright (c) 2020 Ponni B 2020-05-16 2020-05-16 2 3 70 76 10.34256/irjt2037 Cirupaanaatruppadai - Narratology View https://irjt.iorpress.org/index.php/irjt/article/view/74 <p>Today, Tamil Studies obtained evolution in multiple fields. These fields are mentioned in multiple departmental researchers and approaches. Narratology is a detailed explainary studies on Novels. This approach is already exists in 21<sup>st</sup> century onwards in developed countries. Similarly this approach is also followed by K.Panchangam and P.Maruthanayagam in Tamil. For example, Aatruppadai, Epic Literatures (Cillappathikaram, Manimekalai) and Ballads. Cirupaanaatruppadai is one of the Aatruppadai having 269 lines. It mentioned about Moovendar regime, Seven Chieftains Grants and Nalliyakkodan etc., Our aim is to use the Narratology Based Approach in Cirupaanaatruppadai.</p> Sankar M Copyright (c) 2020 Sankar M 2020-05-19 2020-05-19 2 3 77 87 10.34256/irjt2038 Feminist Ideas That Jesus Says https://irjt.iorpress.org/index.php/irjt/article/view/79 <p>The birth of Jesus Christ in the Epic of Jesus. Many feminist ideas are expressed not only in speeches but also in his miracles and teachings. For example, feminist ideas such as the pride of motherhood, the privilege of chastity, the high attitudes of egoism, and the difficulties women face with inequality, have been explored in this article based on Jesus' epic.</p> Rose A Jinila G Copyright (c) 2020 Rose A, Jinila G 2020-06-04 2020-06-04 2 3 88 93 10.34256/irjt2039 Ethics of women in archival literatures https://irjt.iorpress.org/index.php/irjt/article/view/80 <p>From the earliest times to this period, Tamil literature has been the primary source of literature. Archival literature is unique in the History of Tamil literature. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the ethics of women in these archival literatures. Through this article, we are aware of the fact that women have become the best in the world of morality and the need to promote feminism.</p> Muniyandi A Copyright (c) 2020 Muniaandi A 2020-06-04 2020-06-04 2 3 94 99 10.34256/irjt20310 Prevention of Harlotry through Tamil Epics https://irjt.iorpress.org/index.php/irjt/article/view/81 <p>From the Sangam Literature, it is evident that the prevailing practice of the Sanctum- maid (<em>Devadasi</em>) system of the Sangam Age was not regarded as condemnable or condemned discipline by the people of that time. The article justifies on a psychological basis via evidence about the practice of Sanctum- maid system in the society but&nbsp; the Jainist&nbsp; and the&nbsp; Buddhist priests realized the evils of Harlotry is a crime but Chastity&nbsp; is&nbsp; divine&nbsp; and the priests&nbsp; had spread this&nbsp; message in the society through the great Tamil epics like <em>Silappathikaram</em> and <em>Manimekalai</em>.</p> Panneerselvam K Copyright (c) 2020 Panneerselvam K 2020-06-04 2020-06-04 2 3 100 105 10.34256/irjt20311 Women's attire and costumes in the Perungathai https://irjt.iorpress.org/index.php/irjt/article/view/82 <p>Tamil literature is the epitome of the great ideas of our ancient Tamils. Literature is a country's time glass. In which people can connect with them in order to progress. The societal changes in a country's artistic environment are reflected in the local literature. The Epic literature is to highlight the importance of women in their clothing and ornaments. The women’s in the <strong>Perungathai</strong> are the beautiful women who come before our eyes. The prosperity of a country is determined by the women living in the country. Women’s who lived happily with dresses, ornaments and Savor flowers. Therefore, the dress and costume of the female protagonists in <strong>Perungathai </strong>are very special and imitated by the present generation.</p> Devi Meenakshi M.R. Copyright (c) 2020 Devi Meenakshi M.R. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-06-04 2020-06-04 2 3 106 116 10.34256/irjt20312 The Buddhism Morality in The Epic Manimekalai https://irjt.iorpress.org/index.php/irjt/article/view/83 <p>Manimekalai is one of the five biggest epics. Its religious principle denotes that love and charity are the two eyes of the human life. Love all the human beings in the earth is the major principle of Buddhism. Live without any desire is the noble principle of Manimekalai. The highest altitude and goal of this poetry is Love. Restoration and realization of mankind is the highest doctrine of humanity. We realize the social outlook and voice of humanity by the author Saathanar in this manimekalai epic. The author registered the cruelty of hunger by the character "Theeva Thilakai".</p> Hemalatha M Copyright (c) 2020 Hemalatha M 2020-06-04 2020-06-04 2 3 117 122 10.34256/irjt20313 Category of Lands described in Nellai texts https://irjt.iorpress.org/index.php/irjt/article/view/88 <p>The article is a survey of the land and the messages that the Nellai district grammar books have realized. This article also clarifies the division of the land into five Ilakani's whereas the Nellai Texts divided them into ten. These grammar books differ from tradition in the way of grammar but with the acceptance of Conventional. The article also describes variations in the meaning of grammar.</p> Chairmakkani T Copyright (c) 2020 Chairmakkani T 2020-06-12 2020-06-12 2 3 123 141 10.34256/irjt20314 Thirumoolarin Thirumanthira Thiruvarutkaatchi https://irjt.iorpress.org/index.php/irjt/article/view/89 <p>This article looks at the various street game of the lord through the thirumandra Thiruvarut scenario. The essence of this article is to know the greatness of Siva, Siddhu, Siddhu games through Thirumanthiram. Through this article, the Principles of the life Style, Yoga, Ethical, and Piety which Thirumoolar illustrates through three thousand songs are researched. Thirumoolar’s Thirumandhiram (Patham Thirumurai) is a part of Panniru Thirumurai. This book includes many divine play of Lord Shiva and divine appearance of god to his devotees. A review of this book reveals the spiritual faith of Thirumoolar in Lord Shiva. The aim of this paper is to tell about spiritualism of Thirumoolar and his extreme belief in the mantra “OM NAMA SHIVAYA” to blend his soul with the supreme power. In Thirumanthiram, Thirumoolar has mentioned about Shivam, Bhathi, Yoga, Meditation, Shakthi in human physiology, Maya, Prayers, Belief in god, method of worshipping god. He categorized all these characteristics into science, psychology, spiritualism and exchange of soul from one body to another. he explained the presence of Lord Shiva in living and non-living things, blending of spiritualism with psychology, attitude of human beings towards spiritualism. Thirumanthiram insisted that the great five letters mantra “OM NAMA SHIVAYA” covers the entire universe with love and affection of Lord Shiva.</p> Dhandapani R Venkatesan K Copyright (c) 2020 Dhandapani R, Venkatesan K 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 2 3 142 148 10.34256/irjt20315 Sustainable Development Goals: Tracing Social Media’s Tamil Citizen Voices in Indian context https://irjt.iorpress.org/index.php/irjt/article/view/91 <p>As per Human Development Index of 2019 report, India is in the 129th rank. Nearly 28% of the Indian population lives below the poverty line. As per another report from The Lancet journal on healthcare index, India is in 154th position among the 195 countries. According to India’s Annual Status of Education Report 2017, 14% of children in the age group of 14-18 are not enrolled in any school system. Education, health and living standards are the primary factors to measure the quality of life in any social settings. Giving this grim view of social conditions in India, the role of public institutions as well as individual members’ are crucial in lending adequate support to the society to enhance the standings of living conditions. According to a study published in 2011, only 2% of news space were being given to the issues pertinent to development by the leading Indian national newspapers. Many news stories in these 2%, might have appeared due to 'Coups and earthquakes syndrome’ type of events that contained news values of death, disease and disaster. From the perspective of Sustainable Development Goals, the participatory approach of individuals is more meaningful in order to achieve the stated 17 goals as well as 169 targets. Apart from the government’s initiative for the SDGs and substantial fundings from the donor agencies, awareness about the SDGs is essential and ideal for the bottom-up approach towards achieving the development goals and its targets by 2030. In this respect, with the help of twitteR package of and text mining tools of R programming, citizen’s voice was measured for those keywords and its equivalent hashtags which were appeared in June 2018. English is being the elite language in India, one regional language Tamil would be included to compare the non-English private sphere with regard to SDGs in Indian context.</p> Arul Selvan K.S. Copyright (c) 2020 Arul Selvan K.S. 2020-06-16 2020-06-16 2 3 149 162 10.34256/irjt20316 The Traditional Aspects of Tholkapiyam in Pathinenkezhkanakku Aga Noolgal (Eighteen Lesser Texts) https://irjt.iorpress.org/index.php/irjt/article/view/95 <p>Among the Eighteen Lesser Texts that arose during the time of the Sangam and its implications, many of the Akathinai traditions that we have found and widespread in the Tholkapiyam. This article examines some of the Akathinai traditions that have been followed by the Lesser Texts of Tholkapiyam, which have passed through time and religious interferences.</p> Vadivelmurugan G Copyright (c) 2020 Vadivelmurugan G https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-06-25 2020-06-25 2 3 163 172 10.34256/irjt20317 Politics of Valluvam https://irjt.iorpress.org/index.php/irjt/article/view/97 <p>The state that Valluvam insists depends on the rights of the people. To abolish slavery, demand good government otherwise to exclude. Valluvam adores good government and good king at the same time abhor the bad king, and throw such a tyrannical king away. Valluvam, which claims to be a superpower, says it will protect it from enemies. The Government and Government rule that Valluvam insists are not in the category of Monarchy, Force and republic Government. Whatever the type, the scepter government is the government that Valluvam insists. The essay for this study is in the context of Valluvam politics.</p> Karuppathevan U Copyright (c) 2020 Karuppathevan U https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-06-29 2020-06-29 2 3 173 193 10.34256/irjt20318 Jainism and Buddhism in the life of the Tamil Subaltern People https://irjt.iorpress.org/index.php/irjt/article/view/99 <p>A keen reading on the religious activities in Tamil speaking region down the centuries evidently exposes the two different predominant traditions existed with influence, namely ‘Vaithiga’ and ‘Avaithiga’ (Non-Vaithiga) religious traditions. These two indeed by their institutionalised reorganization largely influenced and initiated considerable changes in the socio-political and cultural life of Tamils. Apart form these institutionalised two, a few forms of the local deity worships were also in practice. However, this paper limits its focus on the institutionalised religions in general and Buddhism and Jainism in particular. It seems that the the Vaithiga religion, right from the beginning, has habitually extended its support and has also been supported by the Kings and Chieftains of power/authority whereas Buddhism and Jainism on the other hand have earned their support largely from the subaltern mass. This paper therefore argues that the success story of Buddhism and Jainism among the subaltern mass has not simply related to any external practices of the religions, but invariably structured within the very ‘humanistic’ ideology of the said religions themselves.</p> Suresh R Kalathi V Copyright (c) 2020 Suresh R, Kalathi V https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-02 2020-07-02 2 3 194 201 10.34256/irjt20319