How to Cite
It is mentioned that the epics should contain the four objectives worthy of human pursuit, namely, ‘aRam’ (ethics), ‘poruL’ (economy), ‘inpam’ (joy) and ‘viiDu’ (heaven). These four objectives are mentioned as ‘purusharthams’ in Sanskrit. Dharma, artha, kaama and moksha are the equivalents for aRam, poruL, inpam and viiDu. However, the concept of moksha is not found anywhere in the Sangam literature. It came into existence by the influence of Sanskrit and the literary writings of the northern writers. Raj Gowthaman is of the opinion that the ‘trivarkkam’ of the north tradition is called aRam, poruL and inpam in Tamil and the left out ‘moksha’ in ‘chaturvitha purushartham’, i.e., the four objectives of human pursuit did not exist as ‘viiDu’ during Sangam period. It could be said even clearly the concept of northern tradition based ‘moksha’ was not there with religious connotation in the Sangam society. Rebirth, heaven, elite, heavenly immortal, world of the dead, world of deities-all are included in the poet’s poetic tradition’. Including the objectives of human pursuits in epics, a rule was set in the grammar. ‘Seera puranam’ talks about the first three objective of human pursuit. Except in Buddhism and Jainism, the concept of heaven could be found in all the religions. It is discussed in Vedic religions. Islam refers heaven as ‘the world of the dead’. Seera puranam mentions, however, all the four objectives.
- Rajgowthaman, Ethics and Power in the Tamil Community, p.29
- C. Muthulakshmi, Ethics and Culture, p.5
- B. Mathian, Theory of Internal Theory and Sangha
- C. Ilakkuvanar, Valluvar Kantara Home, p.88
- Harianna, Indian Philosophy, p.14